The Lotus S?tra is generally accepted to be the earliest literature teaching about the doctrines of Avalokite?vara. These are found in the Lotus S?tra chapter 25, The Universal Gateway of Avalokitasvara Bodhisattva . This chapter is devoted to Avalokitasvara, describing him as a compassionate bodhisattva who hears the cries of sentient beings, and who works tirelessly to help those who call upon his name. A total of 33 different manifestations of Avalokitasvara are described, including female manifestations, all to suit the minds of various beings. The chapter consists of both a prose and a verse section. This earliest source often circulates separately as its own s?tra, called the Avalokitasvara S?tra, and is commonly recited or chanted at Buddhist temples in East Asia.